Many individuals below the age of 30 do not feel that diabetes is a condition that they should worry about at their age. However, diabetes, even at age 30 and below, is a huge possibility, especially in drinkers. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes that makes your body resistant to insulin.
This disease is an adult-onset sort that often rarely affects children and teenagers for reasons such as childhood obesity. For those who are new to diabetes 2, Studies have shown that over 30 million Americans have diabetes in the US and out of that population about 90 – 95% of these cases have deteriorated to type 2 diabetes. Preventive measures for type 2 diabetes ensure that the risks are greatly reduced to insignificance.
Many times, people do not notice that they’ve got this disease and this can be due to the mildness of its symptoms. How do you know if you have type 2 diabetes? How does diabetes type 2 affect the body? Here are some type 2 diabetes symptoms:
- Severe thirst
- Too frequent urination
- Blurry vision
- Numbness or tingling in your hand and feet
- Wounds that do not heal
- Recurrent yeast infections
- Sudden weight loss
- Susceptibility to infections
- More visibly, when one is resistant to insulin, there may be an appearance of dark rashes around the neck or armpits as a sign; this is referred to as Acanthosis Nigricans.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?
To give a proper type 2 diabetes definition, it is pertinent to understand the functions of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by your pancreas, this insulin is what helps your cells to convert glucose in the food into energy.
At the onset of diabetes, this insulin made by your pancreas will no longer be used by the cells as well as expected. The pancreas makes the insulin try to divert glucose into the cells, but the process fails and the glucose rather stores up in your blood excessively.
There are several numbers of reasons why this may occur. Here are some type 2 diabetes risk factors:
- Overweight – obesity is one of the factors that lead to insulin resistance. This is highly likely when the extra fats are stored in the midsection of the body.
- Genes – according to scientists, there are various bits of DNA that may have an impact on how your body makes insulin.
- Excess glucose from the liver – when the blood sugar is still low right before you feed, your liver takes the responsibility of making and sending out glucose. After you’ve fed, your general blood sugar increases and your liver at this point will slow down the process of sending out the glucose it has made out of the sugar and stores it up for later. Some people’s livers do not carry out these processes, rather it just produces sugar in large amounts.
- Metabolic syndrome – Insulin resistance often comes along with conditions such as high blood sugar, extra fat, especially in the tummy area, high cholesterol level, high blood pressure, and triglycerides.
- Broken beta cells – when cells send out the wrong quantity of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar can be negatively affected; it accumulates and damages the cells.
- uncoordinated cellular communication – when cells don’t communicate in harmony with each other, there can be a distortion in the production sequence. The process of making and using insulin and glucose can be affected, this chain reaction results in diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes diagnosis has revealed certain risk factors that commonly lead to the disease. Health-related risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:
- Heart and blood vessel disease
- Gestational diabetes
- Having a baby who weighed over 9 pounds
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Diabetes assessment may include certain habits that a person might have. Type 2 diabetes symptoms in men often spring from their feeding habits and lifestyle while for women it may be a bit more complex. Lifestyle risk factors for diabetes type 2
- Lack of adequate sleep
- Not enough exercise
Biological Risk Factors Of Diabetes
- Age (45 years or older)
- Family (Having a family member with diabetes)
- Ethnicity (African American, Native American, Alaska Native, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, and Pacific Islander American)
Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Tests
Type 2 diabetes tests are usually done in two days just to confirm results. However, if you have several symptoms at a time or your blood glucose is found to be high, then just one test would be enough.
- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test – this test shows your average blood sugar for the past 2 to 3 months. While 5.7% is a normal level, between 5.7% and 6.4% is considered prediabetes and over 6.5% on two different tests is an indicator of diabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test – this requires a blood sample taken after an overnight fast. 100mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) is considered normal while over 100 – 125mg/dL (5.6 – 6.9mmol/L) is considered prediabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test – this is used mostly during pregnancy, after an overnight fast, you are required to drink a sugary fluid and have your blood sugar level tested periodically for the following 2 hours. The result of 140mg/dL (7.8mmol/L) is normal. Between 140 – 199mg/dL (7.8mmol/L and 11.0mmol/L) is considered prediabetes while 200mg/dL (11.1mmol/L) and higher indicates diabetes.
According to the American Diabetes Association, a person over 45 years, overweight or suffering from other diabetes-related health conditions is advised to run a test every 3 years to ascertain the presence or absence of this disease in order to prevent it or ensure its early diagnosis. Certain results are a direct cause for alarm following medical tests, these include:
- High blood sugar (Hyperglycemia)
- Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS)
- Increased ketones in your urine (diabetic ketoacidosis)
- Low blood sugar
These above conditions can be life-threatening and call for urgent medical attention.
What are Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Control Measures?
- Weight loss – losing some weight reduces your blood sugar level as well, it is highly recommended (especially for overweight people).
- Healthy dieting – Eat fewer calories, less refined carbohydrate and sugar, fewer foods with saturated fats, more fiber, more fruits, and vegetables.
- Regular exercise – frequent aerobic exercise is healthy for all. Pick an exercise routine in activities such as walking, biking, and swimming and make it regular. 30 – 60 minutes for moderate exercise and 15 – 30 minutes for vigorous exercise.
- Blood sugar monitoring – check your blood sugar regularly or as recommended by your doctor in order to keep it within the normal levels.
- Insulin therapy and diabetes medication – some people may regain normal blood sugar levels with natural remedies discussed above while some will require insulin therapy or diabetes medication in addition. This should be recommended by your doctor as he/she would be able to determine which will suit your particular condition and which ones to combine. Some of the treatments include:
- Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, and others) – this immediately lowers glucose production and improves insulin sensitivity in the body. Side effects include diarrhea and nausea.
- Sulfonylureas – this helps your body to secrete more insulin. Its side effects include weight gain and low blood sugar.
- Meglitinides – this stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin. The side effects are also weight gain and low blood sugar.
- Thiazolidinediones – this triggers the sensitivity of the body tissues to insulin. Its side effects are weight gain, increased risk of heart failure and anemia. Its side effects make this particular medication barely recommended especially as the first choice.
- DPP-4 Inhibitors help reduce blood sugar levels but may lead to joint pains and increased risk of pancreatitis.
- GLP-1 receptor agonists – these are injectable and reduces blood sugar levels and aids weight loss. Side effects include nausea and an increased risk of pancreatitis.
- SGLT2 Inhibitors – they help prevent reabsorption of sugar into the blood and excretion of it through the urine. It may reduce the risk s of heart attack, stroke. Side effects include vaginal yeast infection, low blood pressure, urinary tract infections and higher risks of diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Insulin – insulin therapy is usually injected to restore the normalcy of insulin functions in people with diabetes. Side effects include low blood sugar
There are platforms where one could take a diabetes test online to know if one is living a safe lifestyle. Your doctor might recommend bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) if you have type 2 diabetes and your Body Mass Index (BMI) is higher than 35.
However, the cost of surgery and possible long term complications are usually a setback for this option. Pregnant women with type 2 diabetes will require insulin therapy since many other medications are unsafe for pregnancy.
Some of the best ways are sticking to a type 2 diabetes diet or seeking herbs and other forms of natural remedies that have been indicated as type 2 diabetes treatment.